Types of bone marrow transplant depending on the donor

Autologous:
The autologous transplant uses the same cells from the bone marrow of the patient, which are collected through bone marrow biopsy or circulating blood.  As the patient’s own cells is identical and the HLA not happen rejection after transplantation.

Allogeneic:
The allogeneic transplants using cells from a donor HLA with the same or similar which can be obtained from a brother-sister (30% – 40% probability). There is also the possibility that the donor is a person with no blood relationship with the patient and this is known as matched unrelated donor. It is estimated that a person with European ancestry have a 40% chance of finding an unrelated donor.

 

Do I need to undergo any evaluation before transplanting?

Before deciding whether a person is a suitable candidate for bone marrow transplant, must be filed with the transplant team, which is made up of doctors haematologists, oncologists specializing in transplants, nurses responsible for the care of transplant patients and psychiatrists or psychologists who evaluated the personal environment of the patient and family. In addition to these interviews, the patient is subjected to a series of tests to assess their health status before entering the program transplant. These include: blood group, electrocardiograms, chest x-rays, blood tests for hepatitis B virus, HIV, cytomegalovirus, and herpes.

 

How do you get the bone marrow transplant?

The bone marrow can be obtained by two methods that are ambulatory and do not require hospitalization. Harvesting bone marrow makes the physician with a procedure that takes about one hour and is conducting several punctures (after placement of local anesthetic) on the bottom of the patient’s back (posterior iliac crest) to extract through a long needle approximately 1000c.c bone marrow. These are isolated through a cell separator that operates in a similar way when donates blood but takes more time (approximately 2 hours), As for a vein blood cell separator is driven to that isolated stem cells (larger), and another way reinfunde blood back to the patient. It is a procedure generally well tolerated by patients and donors who are going to perform autologous transplantation.

 

How transplantation affects the quality of life?

The goal of bone marrow transplantation is to achieve healing and achieve in the short term remission of the disease (free time period of disease).When the patient remains in remission for more than five years is considered cured. Despite the patientinitially may experience the unpleasant side effects of chemotherapy and radiotherapy, many of the patients transplanted, eventually returning to his work and family life as normal, some even experience a better quality of life than before the procedure.

 

Practical advices

If you have been subjected to a bone marrow transplant for no reason should suspend the immunosuppressive drugs that have been formulated by the trasplant team’s, because these drugs prevent transplant rejection occurs. On the other hand if you feel fever or any abnormal symptoms see your doctor straight away. Infectious diseases in immunosuppressed patients are manifested in unusual ways and this makes the patient late consulting when the infection has progressed. To understand whether the illness is treatable through bone marrow transplant, check with transplant center of your city.

 

Myths and realities

Myth: Is it true that the bone marrow transplant is a very complicated operation?
Reality: The bone marrow transplant, at present, is a high-tech biomedical but it is not an operation. Preparation is ambulatory and bone marrow is obtained by bone puncture or apheresis is a procedure similar to donating blood. Subsequently, the patient is transplanted like as receiving a blood transfusion.

Mith: Can I be a donor for a brother or sister who needs a bone marrow transplant?
Reality: First they must make an identification of the proteins (HLA antigens) in the blood of the donor and patient, if there is consistency in six or more of these proteins, is considered a consistent donor and the transplant can be performed. Besides not having any important medical history and HIV virus, cytomegalovirus, hepatitis and herpes must be negative.

 

Glossary

Anemia: a deficiency of red blood cells.
Aplasia: failure of some tissue or organ to develop.
Bone marrow: soft substance inside the bones.
Pluripotencial: That is more than one way of doing things.
Transplant: Put a portion of tissue taken from another part of the body or from another person.